Example answers for some of the research questions

What happened to the indigenous people? (3 repercussions from the impact with non-indigenous people of the country )
First Fleet in Botany Bay in 1788 brought diseases which wiped out 50% of population in first years. Before that, population was 375,000 to 715,000.
Land appropriation took land and water for farming and grazing in late 19th century which limited their land even more and often led to attacks on them. Population dropped to 93,000 by 1900.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australians#cite_note-17
Before European colonization, there were between 350-750 distinct Aboriginal social groupings - and a similar number of indigenous languages or dialects. At the start of the 21st century, fewer than 150 indigenous languages remain. All except roughly 20 are endangered languages. Of these languages, only 10% (usually in isolated areas) are being learned by children.

Source: //__http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Aboriginal_tribes__//


What percent of the population are they of the country they reside in?
458,520 (2.4% of Australia's total)
What is the country’s stance on them today?
In 2004, the Australian Government abolished the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC), which had been Australia's peak Indigenous organization.
What rights do they have today?
Legal right to vote if state they live in says so, only 2 states negate this right. 2007, Prime Minister Howard proposed referendum to place indigenous people within constitution, but backfired in legislature.
Aboriginals included in all government counts.


Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/ Australian Bureau of Statistics


How do they match up on statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime against the nation they reside within?
The Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005 snapshot of Australia showed that the Indigenous population had grown at twice the rate of the overall population since 1996 when the Indigenous population stood at 283,000.
72% of Australia's Aborigines are living in poverty. Remote Indigenous communities face particular economic disadvantage, despite so-called benefits.
In Australia the average income is $585 per week.

· The average for Aboriginal people is $364 per week.
· Aboriginal income in cities is $435 per week.
· Aboriginal income in remote communities is $267 per week.

Source: http://www.abs.gov.au/ Australian Bureau of Statistics


Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?
Prime Minister Kevin Rudd made a formal apology to Aboriginals on January 27, 2007.
Some compensation claims are pending via the courts, not legislative.


This is the official apology from the Australian government.

Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/12/australia.aborigines/print

Post your research here. Make sure to title it and put your group members' names and of course cite your sources.

Modern Day Connections

Group Members: Tracey, Vivian, Hannah, Karen



Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?
No, the prejudice and discrimination that occurred against the indigenous groups did not only happen in Australia. Around the world, prejudice and discrimination occurred against many of the indigenous peoples by the conquering people. For example, Native Americans were discriminated against by the Europeans. Their land was taken away by the Europeans due to their primitive weapons being defeated by the Europeans’ guns. Due to misconceptions by people around the world, many groups have been discriminated against, just like the aboriginal people in Australia.


Does this discrimination still persist today?
Discrimination still persists today because misconceptions about other people’s cultures occur all the time. For example, after 9/11, more cultural misconceptions came up discriminating against Muslims. For example, airport security is a lot tighter on people of Arab descent or having the appearance of being Arab. Mexicans are also discriminated against due to the lack of cultural understanding. A fence has been built around the border of Mexico and the U.S. because many people assume they are taking away jobs and causing more problems for the U.S.



Penan
1. Penan- Are the nomadic, aboriginal people living in Sarawak and Brunei located in Malaysia. What happened to them was that they refused to deforestation to happen in their home territories of the Baram, Limbang, Tutoh and Lawas regions of Sarawak. But the loggers ignored their request and began to cut down their inhabited territories. The Penan people were very dependent on their land and the forest relying on the forest for produce. The deforestation cause pollution in their water, lost many sago palms which were one of the staple foods in their diets, lost many animals like boar and deer, lost many plants and more importantly fruit trees used for food and medicine, and the logging even destroyed many burial sites of the dead. Since the beginning of the late 1980s the Penan and other indigenous communities have been trying to block out the loggers but for unsuccessful leading to many fights between the indigenous people and the logging companies, many injured with even some deaths.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penan

2. There are still only 10,000 Penan people residing in Malaysia, making up just under 0.04% of the population.
http://www.survival-international.org/tribes/penan
3. Grassroots organizations are now supporting indigenous rights and have accused the Sarawak state government for the repetition of neglect towards the Sarawak’s indigenous citizens and exploitation of their natural resources. They are now with the help of many NGO’s have filed courts and mapped out places wanted to be prevented of continuous logging of their forests. Many Malaysian politicians however have criticized NGO groups for helping the Penan by wanting them to stay ‘undeveloped’ and less adapted into mainstream Malaysian society. The Penan people now have through a Native Customary Rights, which are rights to land which include rights to cultivate the land, rights to have produce from the land, rights to hunt and fish, rights to use the land for burials and ceremonial purposes, and rights of inheritance and transfer.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penan
4. The Penans are among Malaysia’s poorest people, they don’t own ID cards, birth certificates, or even cash. While trying to prevent their homes in the forests to be cut down, many have been arrested for peaceful blockades. The Penan people, which are classified as “other Bumiputera” by the Malaysian government, have the lowest income of all the other citizens. As the Penan people move away from being a nomadic society and to mainstream Malaysian society, they are also taking blue-collar jobs, such as machine operator and assembler. The “other Bumiputera” are also shown to have the least percentage of people in professional jobs. The Penans have some of the lowest income rates in all of Malaysia, with the median being RM415 p.m. and the mean being RM515 p.m. This falls well below the poverty line in Sarawak, with the poverty line being RM600 p.m. In 2000, an analysis shows that of the Penan people aged 10-14, 50% have never attended school, with the percentage rising with age. The attendance of secondary school is even lower, with only 10% aged 15-19 attending, and to almost 0% for people aged 35-39. These statistics are very low compared to the majority of Malaysia. For the Penan, elementary jobs consist of 12% of the “other Bumiputera” population, while being only 9% of ethnic Malaysians, and 8% of ethnic Chinese, the largest minority in Malaysia. The statistics for secondary attainment shows that for ages 15-19, the Penan are 40% below the average in Sarawak.
http://www.cpps.org.my/downloads/G_%20Bumiputera_Minorities_The_Penan.pdf
5. No, the Malaysian government has not yet tried to compensate for all the damage they have caused to the Penan people. In fact, the Malaysian government states that the forests are being cut down sustainably, when in actuality, mulch of the forest is being damaged and destroyed. The government has even told the Penan that they have no right to their land until they “settle down” or begin farming. However, in 2001 a landmark victory for the Penan was won when an Iban village won against Borneo Pulp and Paper and the Sarawak government for violating their native custom right.
http://www.cpps.org.my/downloads/G_%20Bumiputera_Minorities_The_Penan.pdf
6. From the research of the Penan people, we have found connections to the Enduring Understandings, “Cultural misconceptions are part of the past and present” and “Our past affects our present and future”. This is shown because presently, the Malaysian government is still violating the rights of the Penan people, considering them to be undeveloped and primitive. Our past also affects our present and future is shown in the low educational attainment of the Penan, which in turn affects their futures, such as what type of jobs they will get, with most have menial jobs. Past stereotypes of the Penan have also led to the discrimination and statuses the Penan have today.


Modern Day Connections (Dave, Joo hyun, Daniel, Allyn)

Cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present
Our past affects our present and our future
Our purpose today is to see if what happened in The Rabbit-Proof Fence and the plight of the Aboriginal People of Australia today is different from other indigenous groups of the world.

Discussion: What does it mean to be indigenous?
The term indigenous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group of people who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest known historical connection, alongside more recent immigrants who have populated the region and may be greater in number (“Peoples of the world” by National Geographic Society).
Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?
During the Japanese colonization in Korea, Japanese soldiers took grown-up men as slaves and raped young women. They forced Koreans to use Japanese. If not, they tortured or killed them. After Korea regained freedom, Japan didn’t give an official apology yet.

Does this discrimination still persist today?

The same discrimination does not happen these days, but the relationship between Japan and Korea didn’t recover completely.

Discussion: Plight of indigenous in the world today.
Certain indigenous societies survive even though they may no longer inhabit their "traditional" lands because of migration, relocation, forced resettlement or having been taken over by other cultural groups. The transformation (change) of the culture of indigenous groups is ongoing, and includes permanent loss of language, loss of lands, encroachment on traditional territories, and disruption in traditional lifestyles due to contamination and pollution of waters and lands.

TASK
In groups of 3, choose one of the indigenous groups and research the following information.
You will then add it to the Indigenous Peoples page of the culture unit wiki.
Once this is gathered, we will revisit it next week to see if your theories hold up with the use of more data.


l What happened to the indigenous people in your case study? (Find three outcomes of the impact with non-indigenous people of the country )
-Their homeland today being divided between Northern Iraq, Syria, Western Iran, and Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia. Also emigration was triggered by such events as the Assyrian genocide in the wake of the First World War and the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, the Simele massacre in Iraq. The latest event to affect the Assyrian community is the war in Iraq; of the one million or more Iraqis reported by the United Nations to have fled, nearly forty percent (40%) are Assyrian, although Assyrians comprise only three percent of the Iraqi population
l What percent of the population are they of the country they reside in?
-Only 3% of Assyrians are comprised in Iraq. A total of 550,000 Assyrians are currently living in Europe and 877,000 Assyrians in Syria. More Assyrians live all around the world.
l What rights do they have today?
-Assyrians have rights to choose their own religion, usage of language and having their own culture. However, in normal day lives, usages of these Assyrian cultures are led to discrimination between the people in countries. They are feeling pressure to become Arabs, Kurds and other nationalities where their families live.
l What are their statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime rates? How do these compare against the majority culture of the nation they reside within?
- For Education. UNICEF discovered that school drop-out rates for national minorities such as Assyrians were twice the national average. They drop out from school and give up their education. As poverty, in Iraq, 25% of their population is suffering from poverty, where 49% are minority groups including the Assyrians. For Crime, an Assyrian gang boss who is 27 years old is told to be linked to a murder of a green park man who is 21 years old. Crime rate in USA of Assyrians are minimum about below 3% of total crime in the States.
l Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?
-Just like other minority groups, governments of many countries tried to do things but eventually not that helpful. Only the UNICEF and the UN is trying to help the Assyrians.
l Reflection: How does the research you found connect with our Enduring Understandings
o Cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present
-Many people think that minority groups are still behind their own citizens. This means they face discrimination. Cultural Misconception, which is the main reason of discrimination, leads Assyrians to stay in poverty with no advance. In the past, due to same problem, the Assyrians faced huge genocide during WWI. I think this is the start of the Cultural misconception about the Assyrians.
Our past affects our present and our future

-In the past, the Assyrians faced genocide during WWI. After the breakup of their homeland, many people spitted up which made orphans and refugees. Since then, just like other minority groups, Assryians faced huge problems of discrimination which led to lack of education, which also led to high rate of poverty.

http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/assyrian-gang-leader-linked-to-murder/2006/04/10/1144521269860.html
http://www.christiansofiraq.com/lessons965.html
http://www.aina.org/news/20090521021818.htm
http://www.aina.org/news/20090521021818.htm



Modern Day Connections (Katrina, Julie, Wendy)

Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?
No, for example, in Xinzhuang, China, the indegenous minority groups are being discriminated. They are facing difficulties in life because people would not hire them, and they are people neglecting them in bigger cities like Shanghai.


Does this discrimination still persist today?
Yes, today, this kind of discrimination still exists in the modern society.


TASK
In groups of 3, choose one of the indigenous groups and research the following information.
You will then add it to the Indigenous Peoples page of the culture unit wiki.
Once this is gathered, we will revisit it next week to see if your theories hold up with the use of more data.

· What happened to the indigenous people in your case study? (Find three outcomes of the impact with non-indigenous people of the country )
Taiwanese aborigines-
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwanese_aborigines
For centuries, Taiwan’s aboriginal people experienced economic competition and military conflict with colonizing people. Some of the tribes have even gone extinct because of the government policies designed to have cultural assimilation, and to trade with the colonizers. Their languages and cultural identity were lost. Today, they face economic and social hardship, due to the low employment and education rate. The non-indigenous people in Taiwan would lose their country's cultural identity and traditions. The non-indigenous people of the country would be socially unfriendly towards the indigenous people. Because of the substandard education and economic rate, the non indigenous people would also experience this together with them because they are in the same country.
· What percent of the population are they of the country they reside in?
They reside in 2% of the population of Taiwan.
· What rights do they have today? Taiwan aboriginal people don't really have the fair rights. They share lower education standards, lower income, lower quality of life and higher representation in prisons, brought on by the ravages of colonisation and dispossession. These problems are linked to the loss of customary aboriginal land rights, loss of language, loss of culture, loss of traditional social structures and native logic systems.

"Taiwan Aboriginal Rights: Asian Colonialism And Taiwan's First Nations | Suite101.com" http://aboriginalrights.suite101.com/article.cfm/taiwan_aboriginal_rights_#ixzz0GISRTfV7&A

· What are their statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime rates? How do these compare against the majority culture of the nation they reside within?
Many indigenous communities did not evenly share in the benefits of the economic boom Taiwan experienced during the last quarter of the 20th century. They often lacked satisfactory educational resources on their reservations, undermining their pursuit of marketable skills. The economic disparity between the village and urban schools resulted in imposing many social barriers on Aborigines, which prevent many from moving beyond vocational training. Students transplanted into urban schools face adversity, including isolation, culture shock, and discrimination from their peers. The cultural impact of poverty and economic marginalization has led to an increase in alcoholism and prostitution among Aborigines.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwan_aboriginal

· Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights(1948) played a crucial role for the movement for indigenous cultural and political resurgence to happen in Taiwan. Even though China was a UN member, its martial law controlled the culture and politics of Taiwan. After its political liberalization, oppoisng voices and political movements against KMT started to happen. As a result of that, the offical curriculum in Taiwan schools has been changed to contain more frequent and favorable metion of Aborigines in 1998. The central government is trying to allow romanized spellings of aboriginal names on official documents, offsetting the long held policy of forcing a Han Chinese name on an aborigine. Also, the policy allows a child to choose their official designation if they are born to mixed aboriginal and Han parents. Also, many efforts of some political leaders allowed indigenous poeple to have greater political space.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiwanese_aborigines#Aboriginal_political_movemen· Reflection: How does the research you found connect with our Enduring Understandings
o Cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present- Every hardships such as discrimination that Taiwanese aborigines are facing is because of cultural misconceptions. Those misconcpetions have affected the aborigines' life until today. Therefore, cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present.
o Our past affects our present and our future- Taiwanese aborigines receive unequal treatments and their lives are much more difficult that our lives because of the discrimination that they had in the pats. The Chinese government created the segregation in the society so their lives were very harsh. Most of them are living in poverty and they don't have many chances to escape from that harsh conditions.



Modern Day Connections -Brian, Derek and Harri

Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?

Prejudice and discrimination that occurred against the indigenous groups did not only happen in Australia but also many other places around the world. Prejudice and discrimination occurred against many of the indigenous groups by people who were taking over the land that wasn’t or isn’t theirs. For example, Native Americans were discriminated against like the aborigines; due to Europeans coming and taking there land. They achieved this by having guns and the Natives only having primitive weapons. In conclusion, many indigenous groups are discriminated less and thought of lesser people, which they are not.

Does this discrimination still persist today?
Discrimination still persists today because of different groups not understanding each others culture. For example, Mexicans are discriminated against due to Americans not knowing much about their culture and way they live. This shows by the fact that a fence which has been built around the border of Mexico because many people assume they are taking away jobs and cause problems in the U.S.


TASK
What happened to the indigenous people in your case study? (Find three outcomes of the impact with non-indigenous people of the country)
The indigenous people our group decided to choose are the Māori. Three outcomes of the impact with the non-indigenous people of the country are when Europeans came to New Zealand in increasing numbers from the late 18th century; they brought diseases which destabilized the Māori society. In addition after 1840, Māori lost much of their land, but their population began to increase again from the late 19th century, and a cultural revival began in the 1960s. Finally there is rivalry over land nowadays between Kiwi and Māori people. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C4%81ori)
What percent of the population are they of the country they reside in?

According to the 2006 census, 565,329 people identified themselves as being Māori which makes up
15.7 percent of New Zealand’s population. (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_large_is_the_Maori_population_of_New_Zealand)

What rights do they have today?

Their rights are in the ‘Draft United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous peoples (1993). The draft declaration consists of 45 articles; related to: Rights to self-determination, participation in the life of the State, nationality and freedom from discrimination. Threats to the survival of indigenous peoples as distinct peoples. The spiritually, linguistic, and cultural identity of indigenous peoples. Education, information and labor rights. Participatory rights, development, and other economic and social rights. Right to land and resources. Autonomy and indigenous institutions. The effective implementation of the Declaration and general concluding provisions. (http://www.hpforum.org.nz/resources/RiripetiHaretuku.pdf)

What are their statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime rates? How do these compare against the majority culture of the nation they reside within?
The Maori make up just 14% of New Zealand’s population, but are responsible for more than 65% of crimes in NZ. In Auckland, Maori make up 30% of offenders, yet only 9% of the population. (http://tvnz.co.nz/view/news_national_story_skin/458169%3Fformat=html). 11% of Mäori now stay on at school from 14 to 18 years of age. (http://www.stats.govt.nz/analytical-reports/looking-past-20th-century/maori/maori-education.htm)(http://www.stats.govt.nz/analytical-reports/looking-past-20th-century/changes-in-society/maori-le-mortality.htm )

Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?
Large areas of land were taken from the Maori by the government, under the New Zealand Settlements Act in 1863, supposed to be as a punishment for rebellion. More than four million acres of land in total was taken from the Maori. Even though half of this was returned to the Maori, it was often not returned to its original owners. The taking of the land had a lasting impact on the tribes. (
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand_land_wars)


Reflection: How does the research you found connect with our
Enduring Understandings
o Cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present
I think that cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present because many countries have taken away rights of minority groups that the majority doesn’t like, such as the Aborigine people in Australia. These misconceptions will never fade away in the people’s minds that have gone through the terrible things in the past.
o Our past affects our present and our future
Our past affects our present and our future because these people had their land taken away from them, and they had a war going on from 1845 to 1872. This still affects the people today because not all the land was returned, and also land was not retuned to original owners, even if returned to Maori people.




Modern Day Connections

Team: Oliver, Mitchell, Roger

Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?

When the European settlers came into the New World, they forced the natives to believe in their beliefs. They made them study Christianity. They forced them to speak English. Anyone who didn’t meet these expectations was punished.

Does this discrimination still persist today?


There is not much discrimination left between these two groups today.

-Pygmies are any group where the average height of any adult male is below 150 cm. During the Congo Civil War, many pygmies were hunted down and eaten. Another group, Les Effaceurs, also committed cannibalism against pygmies. Both sides of the conflict refer to pygmies as subhuman. They also face slavery to Banta masters. The Banta group claims that it has been an ongoing tradition. UNICEF and other human-rights activists have stepped in and want to pass a special bill that gives special protection to pygmies. During the World Fair in 1904 that was held in the United States, a pygmy was held asa captive and was used as an exhibit. He was later but in a cage and sent to the New York Bronx Zoo. In 1916 he committed suicide.
-Only 5-10% of the population in the Republic of Congo is Pygmies. There are about 600,000 pygmies in this world.
l What rights do they have today?
-Pygmies do not have many rights. This is because many governments deny the fact that they are citizens. Yet, they do have the right for self-identification. They are given the right to own their ancestral land, or at least part of it. They can practice their own religion and language. Yet, in Congo on needs an identification card that entitles these rights to any citizen. In order to get an identification card, one needs a birth certificate. Pygmies live in jungles that are often farther away from government administration offices. This gives them no way of registering for an identification card. So, they have very few rights.
l What are their statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime rates? How do these compare against the majority culture of the nation they reside within?
-
Pygmies are not accounted as citizens. So, they are often not even recognized in statistics or polls.
l Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?
-The government is in somewhat of a neutral state. The Congo Parliament is currently going through the process to pass a special law that allows Pygmies certain rights. Yet, most of the work has been done by UNICEF and other human-rights activists.
l Reflection: How does the research you found connect with our Enduring Understandings
o Cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present
-The government of the Republic of Congo still believes that the Pygmy people are not “people.” They consider them “sub-human.” This results in certain political issues when it comes to what kinds of rights they have. These misconceptions that were made resulted in discrimination against Pygmies.
Our past affects our present and our future

-In the past, the Pygmies faced slavery and genocide. Yet, they still do. Just recently they have been subjected to cannibalism. Pygmies that do not live in the jungle are usually used as slaves. Their masters call it a “time long tradition.”
http://www.survival-international.org/tribes/pygmies http://www.christiansofiraq.com/lessons965.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pygmies
http://www.survival-international.org/tribes/pygmies



Modern Day Connections (Gwen, Edward and Phillip)

Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?

No, it happened in other parts of the world as well, at many points in history. One of the major events is of course, the Holocaust. Many Jews were killed and sent to concentration camps when Hitler and his Nazis came into power during WWII. In the Nanjing Massacre, Japanese soldiers captured, killed and raped a lot of Chinese women and children. Blacks were discriminated against in the United States during the late 1800s and early 1900s (the Jim Crow Era).


Does this discrimination still persist today?
Yes, of course. The Dinka minority group in Sudan is facing an extreme genocide right now in which a lot of them are getting killed off just because they are different. After 9/11, Americans tightened their airport security and are a lot stricter about letting Muslims and Arabians into their country. Chinese also face some discrimination, as many western countries don’t know much about their culture.

· What happened to the indigenous people in your case study? (Find three outcomes of the impact with non-indigenous people of the country )

The Maori are the aboriginal group of people that settled in New Zealand sometime around the 1300s. They arrived in voyaging canoes from their ancestral homeland of Hawaiki. Europeans came to New Zealand in the late 18th century, and the Maori society slowly deteriorated because of the weapons, war and diseases that the Europeans brought with them. After 1840, the Maori lost much of their land and went into a culture and numerical decline, but their population began to increase again in the late 19th century, before a cultural revival began in the 1960s. They joined forces with the Europeans and there were even cases of interracial marriage. Today, their language and culture has had a huge impact on the different factors of New Zealand life.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C4%81ori#M.C4.81ori_and_conservation
http://www.newzealand.com/travel/about-nz/culture/culture-maori-culture.cfm

TASK


· What percent of the population are they of the country they reside in?
There are currently about 725,000 people who belong to the Maori culture. This is about 15% of New Zealand’s total country population.
http://www.huitaumata.com/publications/Documents/M%C4%81ori%20Population%20-%20Looking%20out%20to%202021.pdf

· What rights do they have today?
Today, the Maori are given the right to own private property, use of resources, the right to vote, and the right to aquaculture, which is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms. Many Maori communities were coastal, and they used the land underwater to fish, as the landing of canoes, recreation, as battlegrounds, burial grounds, and for the collection of seaweed.
http://www.greenleft.org.au/2004/582/32496
http://www.teara.govt.nz/EarthSeaAndSky/OceanStudyAndConservation/LawOfTheForeshoreAndSeabed/2/en


· What are their statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime rates? How do these compare against the majority culture of the nation they reside within?
In 2006, 39.9% of Maori had no education, 32.2% had school qualification, and 27.9% had post-school qualification. Of the resident population aged 15 years and over, 5.5% had bachelor degrees, 0.8% had post-graduate and honors degrees, 0.7% had masters degrees, and 0.1% had doctorate degrees. There were 225,360 Maori aged 15 years and over in full-time or part-time employment in 2006, an increase of 21.3% since 2001. The median income was $20,900 in 2006, compared to the average $40,000 that New Zealanders make. Maori child abuse is twice the national average; this may be due to drugs and alcohol or unemployment and poverty.

http://www.nzherald.co.nz/poverty/news/article.cfm?c_id=286&objectid=10460901
http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/2006-census-data/quickstats-about-maori/2006-census-quickstats-about-maori-revised.htm


· Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?
Yes, today many of the land and property that belongs to the Maori is still being disputed over but there has been some effort from the New Zealand government to recompense them for some land that was illegally confiscated. During the New Zealand Settlements Act in 1863, the government took large areas of land from the Maori. It affected many of the tribes and their survival, for they no longer had a place to live or hunt for food. Although at least half of the land was given back, not all of it was returned to their rightful owners.
http://www.virtualoceania.net/newzealand/culture/maori/

· Reflection: How does the research you found connect with our Enduring Understandings
The first enduring understanding, cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present, connects with the research because we found out that when the Europeans first settled in New Zealand they did not get along with the Maori, but now that they do there are still a lot of people who look down on them and don’t respect their culture. The New Zealand government has been pushed to continue addressing all forms of political, economic and social discrimination against the Maori. Our past affects our present and our future is shown because if the Maori hadn’t settled in New Zealand all those years ago, they wouldn’t even be there right now. It has helped shaped the culture and lifestyle of modern New Zealand life, and everything it stands for. The original Maori culture still exists, and it works to preserve the same traditions and values their ancestors had.

Modern Day Connections (Peggy, Isabela, Cody)


Think/Pair/Share

Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?
No, prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups have happened and are still happening all over the world. Some examples include the current genocide of the Dinkas, the Holocaust [genocide against Jews], and how the European settlers were prejudiced against the New World inhabitants and forced them to act in ways that they were familiar with.

Does this discrimination still persist today?
Yes. Some examples include the aforementioned Dinka genocide and discrimination against Mexicans in the USA.

Discussion: Plight of indigenous in the world today.
Certain indigenous societies survive even though they may no longer inhabit their "traditional" lands because of migration, relocation, forced resettlement or having been taken over by other cultural groups. The transformation (change) of the culture of indigenous groups is ongoing, and includes permanent loss of language, loss of lands, encroachment on traditional territories, and disruption in traditional lifestyles due to contamination and pollution of waters and lands.

TASK

What happened to the indigenous people in your case study? (Find three outcomes of the impact with non-indigenous people of the country )
Our group decided to do our research on the Native American tribes in the USA. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now included by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska and the island state of Hawaii. European colonization of the Americas led to centuries of conflict and adjustment between Old and New World societies. The differences in culture between the Native Americans and Europeans, and the shifting alliances among different nations of each culture, led to great misunderstandings and long-lasting cultural conflicts. In the early decades of the 19th century, Native Americans of the American Deep South were removed from their homelands to accommodate American expansion. By the American Civil War, many Native American nations had been relocated west of the Mississippi River. Major Native American resistance took place in the form of "Indian Wars," which were frequent up until the 1890s. Native Americans today have a unique relationship with the United States of America. They can be found as members of nations, tribes, or bands of Native Americans who have sovereignty or independence from the government of the United States. Their societies and cultures still flourish amidst a larger immigrated American populace of African, Asian, Middle Eastern, and European peoples. Native Americans, who were not already U.S. citizens, were granted citizenship in 1924 by the Congress of the United States.
Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States" _http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States_

What percent of the population are they of the country they reside in?
As of July 1, 2004, the estimated population of American Indians and Alaska natives, including those of more than one race reached 4.4 million. They made up 1.5 percent of the total population of the USA.
Source: "http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/population/005164.html" _http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/population/005164.html_

What rights do they have today?
Native Americans today are US citizens, but they continue to face prejudice in the society. Perhaps because the most well-known Native Americans live on reservations relatively isolated from major population centers, universities have conducted relatively little public opinion research on attitudes toward them among the general public. In 2007 the non-partisan Public Agenda organization conducted a focus group study. Most non-Indians admitted they rarely encountered Native Americans in their daily lives. While sympathetic toward Native Americans and expressing regret over the past, most people had only a vague understanding of the problems facing Native Americans today. For their part, Native Americans told researchers that they believed they continued to face prejudice and mistreatment in the broader society. Conflicts between the federal government and Native Americans occasionally erupt into violence. Perhaps the more notable late 20th century event was the Wounded Knee incident in small town South Dakota. During the period of expanding civil rights protests, activist members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) had taken control of Wounded Knee. They were protesting issues related to Indian rights and the nearby Pine Ridge Reservation. On February 27, 1973, federal law enforcement officials and the United States military surrounded the town. In the ensuing confrontation, two members of AIM were killed and one United States Marshal was wounded and paralyzed. Leonard Peltier, an AIM activist and leader of the event, was arrested and charged, and at trial convicted of causing the uprising that resulted in the attack on the US marshal. He was sentenced to life in prison.
Source: "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States#Native_Americans_today" _http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Native_Americans_in_the_United_States#Native_Americans_today_

What are their statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime rates? How do these compare against the majority culture of the nation they reside within?
Native Americans suffer from many of the same social and economic problems as other victims of long-term bias and discrimination such as high poverty rates, little education and no jobs. The poverty rate among Native Americans is 25.9% compared to the national rate of 11.3%. With this poverty comes poor health condition, lack of decent housing, substandard education, a lack of jobs, and a host of other barriers, such as suicide, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse and gang activity. These negative circumstances keep most Native American communities isolated and economically distressed.
Source: "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_in_the_United_States" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_in_the_United_States_

Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?
The federal government has special obligations to protect tribal lands and resources, protect tribal rights to self-government, and provide services necessary for tribal survival and advancement. The Bureau of Indian Affairs, established in 1824, supposedly promotes agricultural and economic development provides health programs, social services and Native American Schools. Beginning in the early 1970s, Native American civil-rights groups, such as the American Indian Movement, an organization that advocates Native American civil-rights, founded in 1962, began actively protesting their dissatisfaction with the bureau; in 1997 the bureau was accused by Interior Dept. Auditors of mismanaging money owed to Native American tribes and individuals.
Source: "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_in_the_United_States" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_in_the_United_States_

Reflection: How does the research you found connect with our Enduring Understandings?
The research we found connects to the enduring understanding, cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present, because since we did our research on the Native Americans in USA, it really connects because we really had mistaken the Native Americans in the past, forcing them to move out of their home nations. But Native Americans today have a unique relationship with the United States of America. They can be found as members of nations, tribes, or bands of Native Americans who have sovereignty or independence from the government of the United States

It connects to the enduring understanding, our past affects our present and our future because as I said earlier, the Americans in the past relocated the Native Americans by force, which definitely affected our future, but it had a positive impact because now Native Americans were granted citizenship.


Amreen, Erik, Winnie :)





Modern Day Connection

Cindy, Levin, Ryan, David

Our purpose today is to see if what happened in The Rabbit-Proof Fence and the plight of the Aboriginal People of Australia today is different from other indigenous groups of the world.


Discussion: What does it mean to be indigenous?

The term indigenous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group of people who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest known historical connection, alongside more recent immigrants who have populated the region and may be greater in number (“Peoples of the world” by National Geographic Society).


Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?

No. We believe that this happens to many different cultures and populations, including Native Americans, Dinkas, and often to Blacks in general. They have all been discriminated against and treated in inhumane ways.

Does this discrimination still persist today?


Yes. There are many signs of discrimination that exist in today’s world, including the aftereffects of what had been done to the minorities around the world, including but not limited to: short life span, higher illiteracy rate, worse health facilities and conditions, etc.



Discussion: Plight of indigenous in the world today.

Certain indigenous societies survive even though they may no longer inhabit their "traditional" lands because of migration, relocation, forced resettlement or having been taken over by other cultural groups. The transformation (change) of the culture of indigenous groups is ongoing, and includes permanent loss of language, loss of lands, encroachment on traditional territories, and disruption in traditional lifestyles due to contamination and pollution of waters and lands.

TASK
In groups of 3, choose one of the indigenous groups and research the following information.
You will then add it to the Indigenous Peoples page of the culture unit wiki.
Once this is gathered, we will revisit it next week to see if your theories hold up with the use of more data.


1. What happened to the indigenous people in your case study? (Find three outcomes of the impact with non-indigenous people of the country )

Since the 19th century the culture of the First Nation had been suppressed by Europeans, especially through the forbidding of its practices and the establishment of Canadian Residential School System, which is based upon European cultures. In the late 19th century, North American Bison were hunted to near extinction by the Europeans, causing the tribes that rely heavily on the bison to be depleted of food, forcing them to sign treaties with the European government, agree to cooperate with farming and other activities for a steady ration of food. However, the government soon cut down the ration by great amounts to decrease government cost, causing more than 3,000 aborigines to starve to death in the Northwest region between 1880 and 1885. The removal and assimilation of the indigenous people had also been a large reason for the sudden decrease in population. Other crisis mostly concerning food had also impacted the Nations, including mercury poisoning, the lost of hunting territory, etc.

Due to such issues, the population of the aborigines had decreased severely, to 105,611 in 1911. However, this number has been increasing since then, to 976,305 in 2001. High mortality rate had also been an issue that affected the population of the indigenous people. The average age of the Natives is still much younger than the rest, however, aging. The median age of living Natives was 24.7 in 2001, while the median of non-aborigines being 37.7. A trend can be seen from collected data that the median of Native ages is a steady increase. The invasion of European culture also affected the use of Aboriginal languages, especially as mother tongue. Even though eight of the 14 languages have shown an increase in speakers, only 3 increased in being a mother tongue.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Nations
http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/Products/Analytic/companion/abor/canada.cfm


2. What percent of the population are they of the country they reside in?
The data collected in 2006 indicates that about 1,172,790 (3.75%).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Nations


3. What rights do they have today?
The First Nations have claimed that their rights have been violated in the last centuries, however, many organizations, both governmental and non-governmental are encouraging the rights of Natives, especially youngs.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Nations

4. What are their statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime rates? How do these compare against the majority culture of the nation they reside within?
Low birth weight and other mortality rate of the Natives are generally lower than the general Canadian population. However, AMI and stroke percentage is much higher than a comparable Canadian figure.

About 25% of all criminals in Canada are of Aboriginal origin.

1/4 of all aborigine children live in poverty compared to the overall rate of 1/6 in the whole of Canada. 80% of aborigine families have an income less than $30,000 per year while the average annual income for a Canadian family is $67,600.

The First Nations schools are critically under-funded, and the


http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fniah-spnia/diseases-maladies/2005-01_health-sante_indicat-eng.php#prim_health-sante
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fniah-spnia/diseases-maladies/2005-01_health-sante_indicat-eng.php#prim_health-sante
http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/famil21a-eng.htm
http://www.oxfam.ca/news-and-publications/news/oxfam-supports-call-for-action-on-first-nations-poverty/
http://www.turtleisland.org/education/education.htm



5. Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?
The Canadian government has granted rights to the First Nation over their original territory and showed apology for what was done to the first nation.


6. Reflection: How does the research you found connect with our Enduring Understandings
a. Cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present

The First Nations’ cultures were misunderstood and were overridden by the European culture. It has happened many times and will happen again, however, every time such things happen, people will try harder to avoid it.

b. Our past affects our present and our future
No.




Modern Day Connections

[reina]



Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?

No, there are many people that are discriminated outside of Australia as well. Some examples are the Jewish back during the holocaust and also the discrimination the blacks faced in the states from the whites.

Does this discrimination still persist today?

Yes. Even today, there are many groups of people who are discriminated all around the world.


TASK
(Hadza People)
What happened to the indigenous people in your case study? (Find three outcomes of the impact with non-indigenous people of the country)

White parsons try to baptize the Hadza people and to destroy their traditions and lifestyle. Enforced schooling is the second outcome the Hadza people have with the Military. Many times, the military has gone around searching for children that hide in the bushes to escape from the duty of being schooled. The last case is enslaved prostitution. Many had been tricked into prostitution by being taken to Arusha with the promise of work.

http://www.khoisanpeoples.org/peoples/hadza-1.htm

What percent of the population are they of the country they reside in?

Their numbers are just under 1000 people.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadza_people

What rights do they have today?

Rights they have include the right to hunt as long as they are not in the reserve. They can carry out their own religion but there is enforced schooling so when people try to avoid the duty of schooling and hide behind bushes, they are forced to have education against their will.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadza_people

What are their statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime rates? How do these compare against the majority culture of the nation they reside within?

Poverty: the Hadza people hunt for their own food and live in a environment where they depend on nature to make a living and survive. Therefore, even though they cannot buy things at stores, they are not considered in poverty.
Education: schooling is enforced by the government and military takes children for education.
Mortality: unknown
Crime rate: unknown

The poverty rate is quite different compared to the non-Hadza people in Tanzania. They have resources and are not true hunters in the wild like the Hadza people. They do not go hunting their own food and are educated well. The education is important to both sides since even when the Hadza people do not want to have schooling they have no choice but to follow the military’s orders and receive education.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadza_people

Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?

All that I know so far as to what the country did to the Hadza people is having enforced schooling and also enslaved prostitution.


Reflection: How does the research you found connect with our Enduring Understandings

I think that all the information connects with the enduring understandings, systems can create inequities. When the Hadza people receive pressure to study and have education, I think it reflects how the improved society effects the Hadza people and makes them lose choices like whether they want to study or not. This shows how the systems in the improved society outside of the area where the Hadza people live have influenced the Hadza people so much.


Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?
I think that the same situation has occurred in many different places, not only Australia. For one, the Dinkas are in trouble right now in Darfur, and I’m sure there are many other examples.

Does this discrimination still persist today?
I think discrimination persists today in every way shape and form. No matter what the factor is that makes us discriminate there will never be a perfect world where discrimination will be obsolete. Though we may be past racism, there are other means of discrimination that are based on height, weight, or other various factors.
Remy and Ariel
Case Study: Karen Indigenous from Pa Phak, Thailand
Government is trying to claim their land, but the Karen cannot defend it without their legal documents. -They subsequently relocated themselves and regrouped nearby the West end of their original location.
-They have a deed to Sor Por Kor 4-98
-They were forced to sign a document to hand over the land in return for some compensation and new farmland. But, so far, only eight out of 16 families have been paid.

The Pa Phak Karen only makes up 7% of the population in the country.

Some rights they are entitled to are… well nothing. They are currently being abused, raped, and enslaved by people invading the country. They are being targeted to try to protect them, but the recent acts are ineffective.

The report documents 4,000 cases of abuse, including rape, murder, torture and forced labor, mainly over the past few years, in over 190 villages by troops from over 40 Burmese Army battalions.

The Country has attempted to compensate them for the loss in land, and have tried to protect them, but no added effort is evident.

Cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present:
The Pa Phak Karens are outspoken without any government help and no official documents to protect their land. They are heavily discriminated against though they are the original inhabitants of the land. Their land has been taken from them, and as a weak minority group, they are abused, and exploited, often used as slaves.

Our Past Affects our present and our future:
Nowadays, the Pa Phak Karen group feels as though they are treated unfairly. This is because throughout history, they have been mistreated, and disrespected. They are treated as though they are not human. Thailand government has only recently tried to make efforts to reimburse them for all their wrong doings. However, the Karen people feel that it’s too late, as their ethnic group’s population number is now dwindling and almost extinct.

Sources:
www.karenpeople.org
www.friendsofthe**karen**.org/


Modern Day Connections
(Antonio, Mishani, Jordan)

Cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present
Our past affects our present and our future

Think/Pair/Share
Do you think that prejudice and discrimination against indigenous groups only happened in Australia? What are some other examples you can think of?
One example is the Native American tribes in both South and North America. It doesn’t only happen in Australia, it happens everywhere in the world. And it happens for the most stupid reasons. It can happen because people think that they are better than others, or are scared to meet other cultures, so they judge them for having different beliefs.




Does this discrimination still persist today?
Yes. People think that they are better than the Native Americans, still because they are different. Just because we are different from a society doesn’t mean that we are any better or worse than that society.




Discussion: Plight of indigenous in the world today.

Certain indigenous societies survive even though they may no longer inhabit their "traditional" lands because of migration, relocation, forced resettlement or having been taken over by other cultural groups. The transformation (change) of the culture of indigenous groups is ongoing, and includes permanent loss of language, loss of lands, encroachment on traditional territories, and disruption in traditional lifestyles due to contamination and pollution of waters and lands.

TASK
In groups of 3, choose one of the indigenous groups and research the following information.
You will then add it to the Indigenous Peoples page of the culture unit wiki.
Once this is gathered, we will revisit it next week to see if your theories hold up with the use of more data.
Guarani People.

· What happened to the indigenous people in your case study? (Find three outcomes of the impact with non-indigenous people of the country )
The number of Indigoes people living in those countries was higher than a million, but when Portugal and spain invaded their colonies, the number went down to almost none. The language Guaranis was almost gone. And there were a lot of tries to enslave the people, but the Guaranis were too powerfull.
· What percent of the population are they of the country they reside in?
The percentage of the Guaranis in all Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay is 0.1%. There are 198000000 people in Brazil, 40500000 in Argentina, 6800000 in Paraguay. And there are 257400 Guaranis in all 3 countries combined.
· What rights do they have today?
In all 3 countries, the Guarani people have the same rights as citizens. In fact Guarani is one of Paraguay’s official languages.
· What are their statistics of poverty, education, mortality, crime rates? How do these compare against the majority culture of the nation they reside within?
The Guarani make a living out of selling Guarani merchandise. They sell mostly what they make, baskets, rain sticks, and other things you would find in a Guarani home. It is a lot different from what people in the country cities make. Because the Guarani sell what they make, this won’t make a lot of money. But different from country people, they live in the country side, they don’t need a lot of money, because they know how to live using what the forest gives them.
· Has the country done anything to make amends and what was done?
No, not any of the Portuguese people or the countries the tribes live in.
· Reflection: How does the research you found connect with our Enduring Understandings
o Cultural misconceptions are part of our past and present
They don’t understand the Guarani people. They don’t know why they choose to be different and live in the wildness. But it is their tradition.
o Our past affects our present and our future
The Guarani’s are increasing, but before they were disappearing, like similar minority cultures.